One of the most common contraceptive methods is the combined hormonal oral contraception. Ovulation is prevented by the means of pills which contain a combination of two hormones – estrogen and progestin. This method is very efficient (99,97%) and it can also be used by young women, as well as by women who have not had a child yet.
Some other positive effects include regulation of the menstrual cycle, shorter and less intensity bleeding, less painful cycle, etc. When it comes to flaws, there might be some side effects at the beginning, such as irregular bleeding, headache and breast tension. These side effects usually go away after a few months of taking pills.
One other popular method of contraception is the combined transdermal contraception. A woman applies a patch on the skin of the stomach, upper part of the body (breasts should be avoided) or buttocks. This method is 99% efficient. Its advantage over the pills is that it needs to be applied once a week for three weeks, while the pills should be taken every day for three weeks. Some side effects of the patch are skin irritation at the spot of application, headache, breast tension and irregular bleeding. The side effects should be gone after the first three months of use.
Intrauterine contraception is based on placing an insert into the uterine cavity. This method is also known as the coil. The advantages of this method are its efficiency (99,9%) and long protection (5-10 years, depending on the manufacturer). Positive effects include shorter periods with less bleeding and prevention of endometrial cancer. There are some negative side effects as well – irregular periods and bleeding and possibility of absence of the period.
One of the most used contraceptive methods is the condom. When used properly, the condom is 93% efficient. It is the only contraceptive method that provided protection against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. This is one of the reasons why it is especially recommended for young people and for those who regularly change their sex partners. The biggest disadvantage of the condom is that it can break or come off during the intercourse. In those cases, the urgent contraception is recommended. It includes taking the so-called “day after” pill, which is efficient in the first 72 hours after the intercourse.